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Development of Faecal Sludge Management by-laws in Four Municipalities

Project Details

  • Client: SNV Nepal-WASH SDG Programme
  • Location: Nepalgunj Sub-metropolitan city, Khadak Municipality, Chandannath Municipality and Birendranagar Municipality
  • Year: September 2021- January 2021


Nepal having been declared as an Open Defecation Free (ODF) country in Sep 2019, now has safely managed sanitation as its next stage goal. With ODF campaigns, Nepal has seen a growth in on-site sanitation systems nation-wide and now its systematic and safe management including faecal sludge management is an issue. Further, the challenge of reinforcing sanitation management system with proper laws and policies and their effective implementation is still large.

In Nepal, urban and rural municipalities are the smallest administrative institutions at the local level which are responsible and empowered for formulating, implementing and regulating their own standard, policies and laws according to local governance operation act (2074). However, less experience and low technical capacity related to sanitation technologies and systems coupled with increasing and haphazard settlement, and inadequate awareness in the community can cause difficulties in formation of strong and apt policies and laws.

In this regard, SNV is working with four municipalities of Nepal to support in their efforts towards achieving sanitation goals. The four municipalities are (i) Nepalgunj Sub-Metropolitan City, Banke of Lumbini Province, (ii) Birendranagar Municipality, Surkhet of Karnali Province, (iii)Khadak Municipality in Saptari of Province-2 and (iv)Chandannath Municipality in Jumla of  Karnali Province) of Nepal. And EcoConcern Pvt. Ltd./Clean Development Consult Pvt. Ltd./Smart WASH Solutions JV is providing consultancy service to SNV to formulate municipal level Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) by-laws in the 4 municipalities to provide legal and strategic mandates to the municipal authorities towards effective, sustainable and safely managed sanitation service.


The main objective of this assignment is to prepare municipal level Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) by-laws in the 4 municipalities (Nepalgunj Sub Metropolitan City, Province-5; Birendranagar Municipality, Province-6; Khadak Municipality, Province- 2; and Chandannath Municipality, Province - 6) of Nepal.

The specific objectives of the study are:

  1. Drafting of FSM by-laws on faecal sludge management for four municipalities
  2. Sanitation situation analysis including preparation of shit-flow diagram and T2T (Toilet to Treatment) factsheet of the municipalities


The situation analysis of the municipalities will be done using consultation meeting, focus group discussions, key informant interview and household survey in this project.


 Photograph 1: KII with Mayor (Khadak)                                           Photograph 2: FGD with Ward Chairpersons (Birendranagar)                                     



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